Mutations Restriction Enzymes PCR Gel Electrophoresis Lac & Trp Operons
What is a mutation in which a base pair is altered but the resulting amino acid stays the same called?
Silent mutation
What is the function of a restriction enzyme?
Restriction enzymes cut DNA into smaller segments
What, specifically, is done during the denaturing stage to separate DNA strands in a PCR reaction?
Temperature is increased to around 95°C
What is gel electrophoresis used for?
Gel electrophoresis is used to analyze DNA fragments based on their size
What is a mutation in which a base pair is added or deleted called?
Frameshift mutation
Where are restriction enzymes found?
Restriction enzymes are found naturally in bacteria
What, specifically, is done during the annealing stage to allow for primers to anneal to the ends of the target sequence?
Temperature is dropped to 55°C
What is a mutation in which a stop codon is coded instead of a regular amino acid called?
Nonsense mutation
What, specifically, is done during the extending stage to allow for taq polymerase to perform DNA replication?
Temperature is raised again to 72°C
What is a mutation in which a single nucleotide is altered resulting in a new amino acid called?
Missense mutation
What are the 5 things required for a PCR reaction to take place?
Target sequence, DNA primers, free nucleotides, heat-stable polymerase (taq polymerase), and a buffer
What are the two different types of missense mutations?
Conservative: basic, & Nonconservative: polar
What are the 7 things required for a gel electrophoresis experiment to take place?
A buffer, a power source, a tray with an anode & cathode, a DNA sample, a ladder, ethidium bromide, and gel

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