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Agents of injury Inflammation More inflammation inflammation III Wound Healing
100
What are 2nd degree burns
Temperature trauma associated with destruction of the epidermis however, irreversible dermal damage is not evident.
100
What are the cardinal signs of Inflammation
RUBOR – REDNESS DUE TO INCREASED VASCULARITY
CALOR – INCREASED HEAT DUE TO INCREASED BLOOD FLOW
TUMOR – INCREASE IN SIZE – SWELLING (EDEMA) DUE TO LEAKAGE OF FLUID (TRANSUDATION) DUE TO LEAKAGE OF CELLS (EXUDATION)
DOLOR – PAIN - PRESSURE OF INCREASED FLUID (EDEMA)
ON NERVE ENDINGS AND/OR RELEASE OF CHEMICAL MEDIATORS (KININS)
FUNCTIO LAESA – LOSS OF TISSUE FUNCTION
100
What is an empyema
PURULENT EXUDATE IN A SEROUS SPACE
(MESOTHELIAL LINING)
for example:

PERICARDIUM
PLEURAL SPACE
PERITONEUM
100
What are kinins
IN INFLAMMATION ________ BRING ABOUT: VASCULAR DILATION,
INCREASED VASCULAR PERMEABILITY, CHEMOTAXIS (CHEMICAL ATTRACTION),
INCREASED EMIGRATION OF LEUKOCYTES.
100
First Intention
FIBRIN FORMS A WEB BETWEEN THE TWO
EDGES. FIBROBLASTS BIND THE WOUND
EDGES TOGETHER BY DEPOSITING COLLAGEN.

THE SKIN SURFACE GROWS (REGENERATION)
OVER. USUALLY THE 7TH DAY UNION IS COMPLETE
200
What are idiosyncrasias
Chemistries from different people might react differently, in response to chemical agents
200
What does the inflammatory response do
This RESPONSE DILUTES,
WALLS OFF AND/OR DESTROYS THE
INJURIOUS AGENT AND/OR THE
DYING CELLS.
200
What are some clinical sign of inflammation? for example, acute inflammation in the liver would present as...?
SEROUS SPACES – EMPYEMA
LIVER – JAUNDICE
KIDNEY – HEMATURIA
LUNGS – HEMOPTYSIS
STOMACH - HEMATEMESIS
200
What are the 3 steps in the Leukocytic response?
MARGINATION

PAVEMENTING

EMIGRATION
200
Second intention
BLOOD AND EXUDATE FORMS A SCAB OR CRUST.
BENEATH THE CRUST THE INFLAMATORY PROCESS
IS ACTIVE.

GRANULATION TISSUE FORMS AND EPIDERMAL
CELLS CONTINUE TO PROLIFERATE. THE END
PRODUCT IS A SCAR.
300
What are DNA viruses
Some examples are:
ADENOVIRUS-SINUS INFECTION
HEPADNA VIRUS-HEPATITIS
HERPESVIRUS-COLD SORES, ZOSTER
PAPILLOMAVIRUS-WARTS

300
What is cellulitis
INFLAMMATION IN THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
WHERE NECROSIS IS NOT VERY EXTENSIVE.
300
What is a granuloma
COLLECTION OF MACROPHAGES (HISTIOCYTES OR EPITHELIOID CELLS)
WHICH MAY BE SUROUNDED BY FIBROUS TISSUE.

THEY MAY HEAL BY SCARRING, BECOME CALCIFIED OR DEMONSTRATE CENTRAL NECROSIS.
300
What is margination
WHITE CELLS ADHERE TO THE
ENDOTHELIAL LINING OF VENULES.
300
Scarring
CONNECTIVE TISSUE REPAIR
- GRANULATION TISSUE

400
RADIATION SYSTEMIC EFFECTS
ERYTHEMA - REDNESS
EDEMA – FLUID INCREASE
NECROSIS – CELL/TISSUE DEATH
REPAIR – EPITHELIAL/CT TISSUE
are systemic effects of what?
400
Granulation tissue is characterized by what?
PROLIFERATING ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

PROLIFERATING FIBROBLASTS

CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY CELLS
MACROPHAGES
LYMPHOCYTES
400
What is a complement protein?
ENZYMATIC PROTEINS THAT INTERACT TO COMBINE WITH AN ANTIGEN/ANTIBODY COMPLEX.
400
What is pavementing (rollling)
AS MUSCULES RELAX, VASCULAR SWELLING CAUSES DILATATION, THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS ARE SPREADING APART.
400
Desmoplasia
FIBROUS TISSUE RESPONDING
TO TUMOR
500
CONTUSION
(BRUISE) FORCE OF IMPACT IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE SKIN
TO UNDERLYING ORGANS WITH ENOUGH INTENSITY TO DAMAGE
500
What is transudate
STERILE FLUID CONTAINING FEW CELLS WITH A SPECIFIC GRAVITY
LESS THAN 1.015 AND A PROTEIN CONTENT LESS THAN 3 gm%.
THE CONTENT IS CLEAR AND USUALLY RICH IN ANTIBODIES (AB).
500
What is HAGEMAN FACTOR
LYSOSOMES OF DEAD OR DYING CELLS RELEASE

AN ACTIVATOR called _______________WHICH

REACTS WITH AN INACTIVE PRECURSOR FROM

THE BLOOD (KALLIKREINOGEN) WHICH RELEASES
500
What is leukocyte emigration
THE LEUKOCYTES ENTER THE BASEMENT MEMBRANE AND PASS THROUGH THE VESSEL WALL BY
AMEBOID ACTIVITY.
500
LASSITUDE
WEAKNESS/EXHAUSTION






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