Civil versus Criminal Cases Civil versus Criminal Cases The U.S. Court System Elections, Appointments and Terms/The Courtroom The Courtroom
What are individuals or private parties?
In a civil case, this is who may bring a case to court
What is the state/the government [that represents the people who reside therein]?
This is who is responsible for bringing a case to court in the criminal court system
What is jurisdiction?
This is necessary for any court to be able to hear a case
What is lifetime?
This is the length of time that federal judges hold their seats in the court
What is prosecutorial discretion?
This is the term which refers to a state's attorney (or district attorney, or U.S. District Attorney)'s ability to determine whether to file charges, reduce charges, add charges or accept a plea bargain
What is belief beyond a reasonable doubt?
In a criminal case, this is the standard the evidence against the accused must meet in order for charges to be filed against a person
What is a criminal case?
Prison time, fines, and the death penalty are potential punishments that can be issued in this type of case
What is the U.S. District Courts, U.S. Courts of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court?
These are the three tiers of the federal court system
What is 'partisan'?
This is the term used to refer to an election which indicates a candidate's political party affiliation on the ballot, such as in the case of a judge, presidential candidate or state representative
What is a bench trial?
In this kind of trial a judge determines guilt or innocence of a defendant, as opposed to a pool of citizens
What is a criminal case?
A violation of a restraining order would be a type of ________________ case
What is the civil system?
Trials are far more common in this system
What is the eighth amendment?
This amendment concerns the right to bail
What is 'appointed' by the 'governor'?
If a judge in the state court system is not elected, s/he is _________________ by ________________.
What are 'venire' and 'voir dire'?
A ____________ is a jury pool, while ____________ is the process for selecting a jury for a trial
What is a preponderance of evidence?
This is the standard a case must meet in order for a case to be brought before a civil court
What is a criminal case?
A young man is arrested for writing malicious and hateful graffiti on a public university campus bathroom wall. This is an example of a _____________ case.
What are preliminary hearings and grand juries?
These are the two formal mechanisms for establishing probable cause
What is a magistrate?
This individual makes a decision in a preliminary hearing
What is 90%?
This is the percentage of defendants who accept plea deals in criminal cases
What are damages?
This is the term used to refer to the potential penalties in a CIVIL case
What is a civil case?
A group of citizens meet with an attorney regarding excessive charges on their individual cell phone bills that they were unaware of and did not consent to. This is an example of a ______________ case.
What is a first appearance?
This is the point at which a defendant is informed of the charges, advised of the right to counsel, and told the amount of bail
What is indeterminate sentencing?
This process functions as a 'safety valve' for judges to alleviate overly harsh sentences and overpopulated prisons
What is an 'indictment'?
This is the term used to refer to what is handed down by a grand jury indicating there is sufficient evidence to proceed with a trial against a defendant
What are aggravating circumstances?
Age of the victim, physical or mental capacity of the victim, or presence of a weapon may all be considered these, which would serve to impose a lengthier and/or harsher sentence on a convicted individual

CLJ 101 -Spring 2016- Unit 5 - Courts

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