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Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 3: Water and Life Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Miscellaneous
100
What is the valence shell
The outermost shell of an atom
100
What is a polar molecule
The type of molecule water is
100
What is its ability to form four chemical bonds
What makes carbon so important
100
What are carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids?
2x Points: What are lipids?
The four classes of large biological molecules
2x Points: Which one is not a molecular macromolecule?
100
0-14. 0: acidic. 14: basic
Draw the pH scale and label acidic and basic ends.
200
What are nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
The six most common elements of life
200
It is less dense as a solid than it is as a liquid. Caused by hydrogen bonding.
2x Points: What are cohesion, adhesion, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, evaporative cooling, solid less dense than liquid.
Why does ice float on water and what causes this unique property?
2x Points: List at least 5 of the unique properties of water.
200
What is the study of carbon compounds?
2x Points: Yes
2x Points: Urea
What is organic chemistry?
2x Points: Can these compounds be made abiotically?
2x Points: The formation of which compound told us so?
200
What is a dehydration reaction
Carbohydrate and peptide polymerization are this kind of reaction
200
What is RNA?
This molecule includes uracil rather than thymine
300
What are hydrogen bonds and van der waals interactions
The two weakest chemical bonds/ interactions
300
What is hydrogen ion concentration
What the pH scale measures
300
Drawing must include a double bonded carbon and a set of atoms that constitute cis and trans isomers.
Draw an example of cis-trans isomers and label which is which
300
What are unsaturated fats? Double bonding prevents tight packing of molecules.
These kinds of fats are typically liquid at room temperature. Why?
300
What are tertiary and quaternary levels?
A mutation that affects a protein's secondary structure would influence these structural levels as well.
400
What is 14C
2x Points: What are particles and energy
Which one is radioactive: 12C, 13C, 14C
2x Points: A radioactive isotope decays spontaneously, giving off _____ and ______
400
What is cohesion and adhesion
Water transportation in plants is possible due to these two properties of water
400
What are carbon and hydrogen atoms? What is nonpolar? What is the hydrophobic tail?
1. Hydrocarbons are bonds between _____ atoms and ______ atoms. They are ______ (polar/nonpolar).

2. The part of a phospholipid bilayer that contains hydrocarbons
400
What is the R group? 20.
The part of an amino acid that influences its chemical properties. How many of them exist.
400
What are the 3' and 5' carbons?
The carbons on deoxyribose or ribose sugar that bond with phosphate groups to produce a polynucleotide.
500
What are 17, 17, and 18?
The # of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the following atom: Atomic Number: 17 Mass Number: 35
500
What are hydronium and hydroxide ion
When water loses a hydrogen ion, a _____ and a ______ are formed.
500
Hydroxyl: -OH Carbonyl: -C=O Carboxyl: -COOH Amino: -NH2 Sulfhydryl: -SH Phosphate: -OPO32- Methyl: -CH3​​​​
Draw out and label at least 6 of the 7 functional groups from the book.
500
Purines: A and G
Pyrimidines: C, T, and U
Designate A,T,G,C, and U as either a purine or a pyrimidine.
500
Primary: Peptide bonds between amino acids. One polypeptide chain
Secondary: Hydrogen bonding between amino acids (not R groups)
Tertiary: Ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, hydrophobic interactions between one polypeptide chain
Quaternary: Combination of two or more polypeptide chains.
List and give a brief description of each protein structural level




AP Bio Chapters 2-5 Review

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